However, less is known of the bioactive fractions of whey that improve energy balance and metabolism.

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Research includes robot navigation, control and systems engineering, yielding over 140 publications and recognition via awards and media coverage.

He is a Fellow of IEEE and member of AIAA and NSBE, currently serving on several editorial boards of international engineering journals.

Whey and lactalbumin produced transient hypophagia, whereas lactoferrin caused prolonged hypophagia; the hypophagia was likely due to decreased preference. Notably, lactoferrin produced sustained weight and fat loss, and attenuated the reduction in energy expenditure associated with calorie restriction.

Lactalbumin and lactoferrin decreased plasma leptin and insulin, and lactalbumin increased peptide YY.

The guidelines for the management of obesity by the American College of Cardiology, American Heart Association and The Obesity Society recommend inclusion of dietary protein at a minimum 25% of total calories, together with caloric restriction, to promote weight loss in obese adults, decrease body weight and fat, increase lean mass and improve glycemic control in humans.

We previously demonstrated that whey is more effective than casein in decreasing food intake, weight and fat gain, and in improving glucose tolerance in rat models of human obesity by modulating key regulatory steps of glucose and lipid metabolism in rodent models.

We compared the effects of normal protein (control) diet with high protein diets containing whey, or its fractions lactalbumin and lactoferrin, on energy balance and metabolism.

Diet-induced obese rats were randomized to isocaloric diets: Control, Whey, Lactalbumin, Lactoferrin, or pair-fed to lactoferrin.

Mugen Peng has been a Full Professor with the School of Information and Communication Engineering, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, China, since 2012.

In 2014, he was also an Academic Visiting Fellow with Princeton University, USA.

From November 2001 to December 2004 she was Associate Professor of System Theory at the Engineering Faculty of the University of Padova.